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Featured Client: Jeff Bacot

On The Hole Jeff BacotDo you like novels and golf? On the Hole is an award-winning novel about golf—and so much more—by Jeff Bacot. On the Hole won the prestigious 2013 EVVY Merit Award for fiction in May, and just won the 2013 GOLD MEDAL Award for sports fiction, with a 5 star rating from the judges of the “Readers Favorite” group.

Regarding Edit911’s editing, Jeff has this to say: “Winning these awards was in no small part because of the brilliant editing help I had from you, Dr. Robert, and Dr. Dan. Edit911 was instrumental in helping me get my novel done. In fact, I literally couldn’t have ended up with my novel nearly as well-written as it is without having had your fantastic editing suggestions and guidance.”

On the Hole is a terrific story! Thanks for entrusting it to us, Jeff!

To learn more about Jeff and his award winning novel check out these resources:

Jeff Bacot

1.  Author:  http://jeffbacot.com/

2.  Book:  http://www.outskirtspress.com/onthehole/

3.  Blog:  http://www.tumblr.com/blog/jeffbacot

4.  Interview w/ Washington Times:  http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/written-word/2013/may/9/interview-hole-author-jeff-bacot/

5.  Press Release:  https://www.prbuzz.com/books-publishing-literature/127267-jeff-bacotss-humorous-and-menacing-on-the-hole-receives-evvy-award-and-washington-times-recognition.html

6.  Twitter: @jeffbacot

7.  Clarion ForeWord:  https://www.forewordreviews.com/reviews/on-the-hole/

Featured client: Paul Hernandez

Dr. Paul Hernandez is one of the country’s greatest, most respected, dedicated and inspiring college professors. I’m [Dr. Marc D. Baldwin, Owner of Edit911] truly honored to be working with him to edit and polish what will be a bestselling, highly influential book The Pedagogy of Real Talk. He has attained such stature that he won the 2012 NEA Reg Weaver Human & Civil Rights Award.

About his experience working with the Edit911 Staff and me, Paul says: “I am so happy with your editing services, Marc, as you a true professional. I look forward to a long term working relationship with your company. You are a big part of the success of the book and I just want you to know I will sing your praises when it is all said and done to everyone I know.  :-) Your support is a wonderful thing, my friend.  Of course, if there is anything I can ever be of service for please do not hesitate to ask.”

The following is reprinted from the NEA’s website, Classroom Superheroes:

book editing proofreadingPaul Hernandez is not your typical college professor. See: Tattoos. Hear: His story. Hernandez, an assistant professor at Central Michigan University, grew up in poverty in Los Angeles – real poverty, the eating out of garbage cans and sleeping in cars kind of poverty.

“I was born and raised in deep poverty,” he says, by a single mother who came to the United States from Central America and struggled to earn more than $5,000 a year.

School should have been a haven. But it wasn’t. “School was, unfortunately, more of a punishment, in terms of what it felt like and was like,” Hernandez recalls. For one thing, it’s hard to focus when you’re hungry. For another, far too many of his teachers looked past Hernandez, or through him. Maybe he had “potential,” as some said, but most never tried to tap it.

“In eighth grade, I remember my grades: F, F, F, F, F – with 60 absences. I pretty much just stopped going to school…and no, nobody came looking for me,” he said. “Being a deviant kid, being involved in so many things, being in trouble all the time, it just didn’t allow for success in school.”

For most kids, the story ends there: jail or death.

But Hernandez recalls a dawning realization as a teenager that brought him, stumbling over his words, to the registrar’s desk at the local community college. It was this: He realized that everybody who held power had an education. “Walking in there, it was scary. And it was humiliating – because the questions I asked were so preposterous to them. They couldn’t help but chuckle when I said, ‘Hey, I want to go here.’”

But he persevered, hiding his textbooks from his gang family. And eventually, with the help of a California State University, Los Angeles mentor and the hope that he would eventually make a difference in the lives of kids just like him, Hernandez went on to earn a Ph.D. in sociology from Michigan State University, specializing in race in education.

Along the way, as part of his dissertation, Hernandez developed “Real Talk “ an alternative pedagogy that any teacher can use to connect with their students. “You know students don’t think of teachers as people like them,” says Hernandez – but when they do, when they make that personal connection, it lays the foundation for connections to the curriculum.

Hernandez, who is also a contributor to NEA’s journal Thought and Action, also has modeled a “College 101” program that helps at-risk high school sophomores to see themselves as college students. You can read more about that program here: http://www.nea.org/home/49629.htm

Check out Paul’s Facebook page:

http://www.facebook.com/pages/College-101-at-CMU/286330118149052

Edit911 Endorsed in APE: How to Publish a Book by Guy Kawasaki & Shawn Welch

Edit911 is pleased to announce that Guy Kawasaki & Shawn Welch have endorsed our services in their definitive book about self-publishing: APE: How to Publish a Book—Author, Publisher, Entrepreneur. On page 87, they say, “Edit911 helps you hire PhDs—surely they are subject-matter experts.”  On page 351, they also describe Edit911 as “A website where authors can hire editors and proofreaders who are experts in book editing, dissertation editing, and other document, copy, and text editing.”

Edit911 Guy Kawasaki Book Editing Editor Service Expert PhD Editors Guy Kawasaki APE Book Endorsement

 

It’s important to note that Guy Kawasaki is one of the world’s leading authorities of not just self-publishing, but Apple, Google, marketing, and entrepreneurship. He’s written several other bestsellers, also definitive works in their subjects. We encourage you to get to know him and his excellent books, blogs, and website: http://www.guykawasaki.com.

We are truly flattered and grateful that of all the editing services in the world, Mr. Kawasaki and Mr. Welch chose only Edit911 to mention in their landmark book, which you can purchase by clicking the book cover below:

Ape How To Publish A Book Guy Kawasaki

Featured client: Denise Messenger

edit911 featured client testimonial book editingDenise Messenger is a cancer survivor. Her book “Got Cancer? Now What?” has won three prestigious awards:

  1. eLit Award of 2012 Gold Medal under the category of Health/Medicine/Nutrition for excellence in digital publishing
  2. The International Book Award winner in the category of Health-Cancer
  3. The Indie Excellence Award as a finalist under the Cancer category

Edit911 is proud and humbled to report that Denise “attributes the success of Got Cancer? Now What?  to the excellent editing produced by the Edit911 team.  The big challenge was finding an editor who could not only edit the book, but who had medical terminology and experience with scientific research and technical jargon. Blending these together and keeping the integrity of the book and research took dedication and a special talent. Good editing involves keeping the author’s intent in balance with the overall objective of the book. Edit911 succeeded with this.”

Denise attended UC Irvine where she received her Certificate in Human Resource Management and held the position of Vice President of Human Resources with a major firm in Orange County, California.  While attending Orange Coast College toward a BA in Communications she received a diagnosis of both breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

She transitioned into working in the medical field for a few years to be closer to physicians and to learn more about therapies.  She was determined to find a gentle, more nontoxic and immune supporting way to fight her cancer.  As a result she was cured of her breast cancer.

After six years of fighting the CLL, reading medical journals, research studies, articles, books and consulting with researchers and physicians worldwide she ultimately found  a cure as a stage-four patient for the second cancer, CLL.

During these years she found her passion was writing and helping other cancer patients by identifying and fulfilling their needs—whether it was a hotel room for the night or a nutritional drink to regain some strength. One day she decided to extend her meaningful work into writing a book to help others.

In this easy-to-read guide, Denise Messenger describes precisely what to do after the devastation of a cancer diagnosis by covering both the scientific and personal aspects of cancer.  She illustrates how being positive and prepared can have an incredibly beneficial effect on cancer outcomes. Whether you have been diagnosed with cancer or know someone who has, this book will help you decide how to select doctors and treatments, as well as how to take care of your body with both traditional and alternative therapies.

Denise Messenger may be contacted through Knowledgeworks Publishing by phone at 949 427-0239, the website www.gotcancernowwhat.com or by email at info@knowledgeworkspub.com.

Got Cancer? Now What? can be purchased at amazon.com in paperback or as a kindle.

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It is also available at the website www.gotcancernowwhat.com with free shipping.

How to Write News Stories

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Do you want to pitch strong, timely news stories to papers and magazines? Looking for ways to sharpen your accuracy, credibility, and professionalism? Here are a few pointers to give you an idea of what publishers are looking for and what editors love to see:

  1. Timeliness: In the print media, particularly newspapers, most of news reaches readers several days or even weeks after it’s written. This means it’s important to emphasize the elements of your story that will still be current. Instead of leading with: “On December 5, Ourtown Ministries held a conference on homelessness,” begin: “Homelessness is an epidemic in Ourtown,” says the director of a local ministry that hosted conference on homelessness in December.”
  2. Lead: The lead is the heart of the story. It should grab the reader’s attention, be in the present tense, and sum up the story in 30 words or less. Writing the lead is half the job. A hard lead contains all the facts. If you use a more oblique approach to catch attention, (known as a soft lead) the key information should follow immediately.
    1. Hard lead: “A family in Ottawa’s Westboro neighborhood fled their house in a panic early Monday morning when the roof started to collapse under all the snow that fell over the weekend.”
    2. Soft lead: “The little town of Bethlehem may be overshadowed by a wall 24 feet high and crowned with razor-wire, but it’s home to a small beacon for peace. Wi’am is a grassroots conflict resolution centre in the Bethlehem devoted to building peace in the Middle East using principles of traditional Arab peacemaking.”
  3. Direct quotes: The reader should have encountered a direct quote by the second or third paragraph. Quotes should be colorful descriptions, convictions, or gut responses rather than plain factual information.
    1. Weak quote: “Last year 1,000 cars were stolen in this city,” said the mayor.
    2. Strong quote: “I’m horrified at the way car thieves in our city are thumbing their noses at the law,” said the mayor.
  4. Active verbs: Use every opportunity to turn passive constructions (A plan for a new shopping mall is being discussed by city council) into an active construction (City council is discussing plans for a new shopping mall.) Subject – verb – object. It’s snappier, and more effective newswriting.
  5. Shorter is better: I’ve found that my stories almost invariably are stronger and tighter after I trim them down. When I’ve edited a story, it almost always ends up shorter. If you’re over your assigned word count, go over your story and see where you can tighten it up without losing any content.
  6. Always use “said”: When quoting someone avoid using charged words like “admitted,” “claimed,” or “suggested.” Stick to “said” or “says.”
  7. Get both sides of the story: It does not matter whether your story is about abortion, same-sex marriage, freedom of expression or whether the Holocaust really happened or not, there are always two sides to present. As a reporter, it’s your job to find intelligent voices who speak for both sides. If only those people who already agree with our position want to read our paper, we won’t have much of an impact in the world.
  8. Sources: A news story is not well researched unless you’ve interviewed at least three people. For example, if you’re writing a profile, interview the person’s mother, colleague or employer.

Managing Your Time When Working from Home

Home based careers have a lot to offer those who want more freedom in their daily lives. This independence presents its own problems, but the challenges can be met by following a few simple guidelines for effective time management while working from home.

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As I write this article, it’s one o’clock Saturday morning. The deadline for submission is hours away and now I’m wishing that I had a regular nine to five job in the city. I’d be in bed right now. I shouldn’t have to spend my weekends this way, but this is all my fault. I chose to work from home under my own schedule.

I take heart by the hope that if the weather is good on Monday morning, while everyone else is commuting, I can jump on the bike and ride to the beach. Later, I can enjoy a leisurely coffee at the bistro mulling over the direction of my next article. When and how I work is entirely up to me.

Today’s technology makes home-based work an attractive possibility for many. It is efficient, flexible, and fulfilling. But it also has its pitfalls, such as loneliness, tunnel vision, lack of accountability and domestic distractions. Perhaps the biggest challenge to working from home is time management, whether you tend to be lazy or are inclined to overwork. Here are some suggestions to make the most of your time in a home office.

Set Family Boundaries

Being close at hand to family members while at work means that you are making yourself available to them at a moment’s notice should they want your attention. It also makes them accessible to you for even the slightest reason (or excuse!). Presumably this is one reason why you chose to work at home, but it can become your worst time thief unless everyone has a clear understanding of what issues merit intentional interruption.

To guard against unintentional interruptions or distractions, the “open space concept” is not a good idea. Unless you live alone, you must have a separate work space that can be dedicated exclusively to the job while you are “on duty.” Make it clear that you are not being rude if the door is closed; you simply have left for work.

Log Your Time

For the workaholic, a home based career can be the fastest route to burnout. Extending your work hours is as easy as walking a few steps down the hall. Checking email before your morning shower, reading a report over lunch, making a phone call during a commercial break on TV, or scheduling tomorrow’s tasks before bed – all of these add up to overtime without the extra pay.

As an experiment, try keeping a work diary of every hour you spend working for a week. Make sure to log even the 15 minutes you stole right after supper. Chances are when you review your record you will have far exceeded a 40 hour work week. What is more, you will likely discover that you worked more than five days in seven.

Does the time spent in various activities reflect their importance? Are you spending more time on favorite parts of the job than on the onerous ones? What tasks regularly fall through the cracks or typically get deferred until the last possible moment? Are you being realistic as you forecast completion dates?

Design A Schedule 

Once you have an idea of how you are spending your time, draft a schedule that is realistic and reflects the priorities of your profession. Because your workplace is also your home, your schedule needs to be fully integrated to strike a healthy balance for your mind, body and spirit. Everybody needs time out for rest and recreation. Be intentional about protecting your down time as much as your “billable hours.”

Be Flexible

For many people, the main reason to work from the home is the flexibility it allows. So, to suggest clear boundaries and a comprehensive schedule may seem contradictory. However, the more you plan, the better you can adapt when unexpected circumstances arise. Because you are working from home, you potentially have twenty-four hours in every day to allocate instead of eight. This makes last minute changes much easier to accommodate.

7 Children’s Books that Could Hit the Big Screen

Who Said Children’s Books Can’t Make Great Movies?

Bloggers love to talk about the books they have read that would make great movies, but then how many of us are truly unhappy with Hollywood’s version of our favorite reads? I compiled a list of great movie adaptations of books that you won’t see anywhere else … but already added the Hollywood twist that will leave a different taste in your mouth than the author intended. And did I mention these are all classic children’s books? Dream with me a little about the adaptations of these books into movies.

Goodnight Moon
Goodnight Moon – If you have kids, you have read them this book. It is so popular, some hospitals send new parents home from the maternity ward with this book. And the crazy thing is, this book works! Who knew that saying good night to everything in your room – from the clocks to the pets – can actually have a drowsy effect? But think of the money Hollywood will make on this movie. People would pay for it and fall asleep before the end. They are too embarrassed to admit it so pay again to see the end of the movie! Just wait until it hits Redbox — those extra night fees will kill you.

Chicka Chicka Boom Boom

Chick Chicka Boom Boom – This book invites you to start tapping a beat and put the words to rhythm. No matter who makes the movie, I am thinking the movie soundtrack will be out of this world. It will lead to a new genre of music: the hip hop-kids-stadium anthem genre. Time outs at major sporting events will never be the same, culminating in the Super Bowl halftime show featuring Kanye West rapping through the Schoolhouse Rock collection. Can’t wait!

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The Monster at the End of This Book – The first Hollywood movie to save the big scare all the way to the end of the movie. Unfortunately, the suspense and scare are too much for little kids and less adventuresome adults. But it leads to a resurgence of The Muppets and a remake of Where the Wild Things Are.

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The Very Hungry Caterpillar – Very close to the previous horror movie entry is this disaster movie. That hungry caterpillar eats Tokyo and is moving toward the rest of the world. How can it be stopped? Only director Tim Burton could make this special movie in a way that is both scary and humorous at the same time. Plus, Hollywood loves the sequel. Stay tuned for Hungry Caterpillar 2: the Even Hungrier Butterfly.

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Frog and Toad – Moviegoers are drawn to this musical adaptation of the Frog and Toad series, plus film critics everywhere praise the film for its ingenious portrayal of the characters in a way that brilliantly addresses socio-cultural issues in today’s ethnically diverse melting pot milieu. In an unprecedented move, Frog and Toad end up sharing the Best Actor Oscar.

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The Wide-Mouthed Frog (in 3-D) – Who knew that this beloved pop-up book would shine so prominently on the big screen in 3-D? Audiences are shocked to learn that the wide-mouthed frog was genetically altered through the introduction of alien DNA in a secret government location inside of Area 51. WMF himself uncovers the conspiracy as he seeks to discover his own hidden identity. Matt Damon co-stars as Jason Bourne, faithful sidekick to the wide-mouthed frog.

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The Five Chinese Brothers – Let me begin by saying that I loved this book as a child. The movie could avoid any claims of stereotypes and focus on the cool superhuman things, such as swallowing huge amounts of water. Crazy! Who doesn’t want to swallow the ocean? This was a superhero book before there were cool superheroes. If this hits as big as it could, there will not only be Happy Meal toys, but bottled water moguls begging for the rights to include their faces on every bottle of water available. Talk about reaching new markets from superhero movies. They actually may make that Aquaman movie after all.

Top 9 Books Aspiring Writers Should Read

As I look back over the list I compiled, I can’t help but think, this is an odd list! But these writers inspired me through their books in many different ways to bring me along as a writer.

1. Dune by Frank Herbert

I learned a few lessons about the type of writer I did not want to be by reading Dune. It was much too complicated and verbose for me at that stage of life.

Dune

2. The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner

Some readers equally find Faulkner’s Fury complicated in another way: the stream of consciousness of the “idiot” family member. But I found it fascinating, more like a puzzle needing to be solved. Faulkner had me reeled in to figure this out.

The Sound and the Fury

3. A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor

This is the only book on this list that I have read several times for the pure joy of it. O’Connor had my emotions at her disposal. I laughed, ridiculed, laughed some more, and then was shocked. In the end I identify too much with the words of the Misfit, “She would have been a good woman had someone been there to shoot her every day of her life.” I too lament those moments of clarity that only occur when bad things happen. Oh for those moments of clarity all the time!

a-good-man-is-hard-to-find1

4. All the Kings Men by Robert Penn Warren

Never have I been so drawn in by introspection over identity, but I read Warren’s words as I searched for my own identity and realized how fractured I really am. I especially identified with Jack’s musings about the picnic where he invites all the different versions of himself together at the same time. Would my different identities even recognize each other? he muses. That quote hangs with me to this day.

all-the-kings-men1

5. The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien

My 12th grade English teacher pulled me aside and told me, “I want you to read these books.” And they consumed me. I could not put them down. I lived and breathed them and wondered how I could have lived 17 years on planet Earth without reading them. They were adventure to me as I lived through Frodo and Bilbo.

The Lord of the Rings

6. The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis

If The Hobbit was an inspiration of adventure, Narnia’s tales were pure magic. I used to dream of being taken away to Narnia. I used to remember stepping between floor-to-ceiling supports in our basement and imagined them as a gateway to Narnia. No, imagined is not strong enough. I longed to go to Narnia like Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy.

chronicles-of-narnia-boxed-set

7. Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein

Heinlein was not just adventure; it was danger. I had a fascination with science fiction and the young hero in Heinlein’s story.

Starship Troopers

8. The Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling

Never have I read so much with such anticipation and still wanted to read more when all seven volumes were complete. I longed to write my own imaginative story that created a world not too distant from our own.

jk rowling harry potter

9. The Firm by John Grisham

Never have I read a book so quickly. I still think of it as the page turner that I truly picked up and didn’t put down until I was finished.

john grisham the firm

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Increasing Your Attention Span

By Dr. Kevin

Attention spans are shrinking in today’s information rich technology of sensory overload. In response, the market has introduced pills, drinks, and powders that claim to increase your powers of concentration. But there are also lifestyle and work habit changes you can make to increase your attention span naturally. 

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Actor Robert Redford once said of a colleague, “He has the attention span of a lightning bolt.” I winced at that observation, thinking he could have easily been describing me. I’m lucky if I can write a single sentence before fighting the urge to starting another game of solitaire.

Behavioural scientists have known for decades that the upper range of the average adult attention span is 20 minutes when listening to a speaker. But, in recent years we have been conditioned to have an even shorter focus. Television programming works with eight-minute spans. Multi-media options and lightening fast access to information on the computer force internet searches to narrow their window of opportunity to about 30 seconds. How can we condition our minds to follow through on a train of thought to reach its conclusion?

Some people turn to stimulants or dietary supplements to boost the power of concentration. But there are simple changes in lifestyle and work habits we can make that can increase our attention span naturally. In addition to sleeping well, eating healthy, and getting enough exercise, here are some specific strategies for improving attention span.

Feed Your Focus

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can occur when otherwise healthy individuals neglect to eat, can slow the speed at which people process information and shorten their attention span. After the overnight fast and lack of glucose in the body, it is important to eat a breakfast rich in both carbohydrates and proteins. The sugars can quickly make your mind sharp, and the complex carbohydrates and proteins will sustain energy to think for extended periods.

The health effects of synthetic food additives on certain people were documented 30 years ago by the late Dr. Benjamin Feingold in his book Why Your Child is Hyperactive. Since then, researchers have consistently corroborated that food additives exacerbate the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Many with the disorder who switch to a diet free from artificial colorings, sweeteners, and preservatives can experience major improvements in attention.

In addition, ensure that your diet includes enough vitamins and minerals. Deficiency of magnesium, for example, can lead to fidgeting, anxious restlessness, and learning difficulties. As well, the B-complex vitamins (including folic acid and choline), omega 3 fatty acids, and zinc are all linked to the maintenance of a healthy attention span.

 

Practice Meditation

Studies have shown that meditation is even more effective than sleep in improving attention span. For example, in a 2005 study, Bruce O’Hara, associate professor of biology at the University of Kentucky had college students either meditate, sleep or watch TV. The form of meditation was deceptively simple: it involved focusing on an image or sound or on one’s breathing.

O’Hara then tested all the students for what psychologists call psychomotor vigilance, asking them to hit a button when a light flashed on a screen. Those who had been taught to meditate performed 10% better—”a huge jump, statistically speaking,” says O’Hara. Those who snoozed did significantly worse. “What it means,” O’Hara theorizes, “is that meditation may restore synapses, much like sleep but without the initial grogginess.”

 

Control Your TV Watching

Between the constant commercial interruptions and the ever-present remote control that allows constant channel surfing, television breeds an appetite for distraction. When you want to watch, consider pre-recording episodes or renting movies so that you can enjoy the program without breaks.

 

Read Books

Reading definitely increases your attention span. Have you ever noticed that if you find an interesting novel to read, you may turn the pages for five or six hours regardless of the activity around you? These marathon reading sessions increase the stamina of your attention span for other tasks that require extended focus.

 

Exercise Your Observation Skills

Exercising your memory and your observation skills is a great way to build your attention span. Try this “picture game”- study a picture for about a minute. Then, look away and recall as much of the picture as you can. Try to visualize and place objects in the image of your mind. As you practice this regularly, your attention span and power of recall in daily events will grow.

 

Limit Internet Use

You may have heard the quip, “The attention span of a computer is as long as its electrical cord.” Actually, you don’t have to unplug the machine to break a train of thought. All it takes is an impulsive click of the mouse. This is not good news for those of us who go on-line to inform and shape our thinking.

To avoid having the attention span of a computer, consider saving articles of significance and logging off the Internet to read them. You may even find it helpful to print important documents and leave your workstation to digest their content. This reduces the temptation to jump between websites competing for your interest.

These lifestyle and work habits can all help increase attention span. Of course, your powers of concentration will have ebbs and flows at the best of times. When this happens, don’t be afraid to take a complete break. It will refresh your mind in a way that simply switching to another task cannot.

Peer-reviewed research article vs. dissertation

Peer-reviewed research article vs. dissertation: How to write a great paper for publication

You’re writing your dissertation and want to publish your first research article. What is the difference between your dissertation and a publishable article? Working at a peer-reviewed journal, I have seen manuscripts of all types including those that look like they were copied and pasted from a dissertation. Research articles are concise summaries of your work directed at readers who are experienced in your area of research. Dissertations serve as a platform for an evaluation of your expertise and work. If you keep this in mind, then you will have a much better chance of having your work published.

How to write a great paper for publication

First, let’s review four sections of any research paper: introduction, results, discussion, and methods. I have not included the abstract, as this requires an entire blog on its own. Second, I will give you a strategy to develop your paper that will put you on a path for success.

Introductory section

Roles of a dissertation include demonstrating an in-depth knowledge of your field, assessing your ability to define a problem, creating a hypothesis, and designing an appropriate tool to test it. When you are writing a paper for publication, all of these are already assumed. The readers are experts and not on your committee. Your introduction should include a few points to orient the reader as to what is known, what you are aiming to determine, and how. The last sentence of your introduction should state that the objective of this research is to determine whatever you are interested in by using your selected tool.

Results section

The results that are discussed in your research paper need to be restricted to those that are relevant to answering your objective. No matter how interesting a particular experiment may have been, if it isn’t directly related to your research question/objective, it will detract and ultimately sabotage your efforts to have your work published. It will prompt reviewers to question the structure of the research plan and lose focus on the objective. They may even envisage a different paper centered on a new objective. Keep it simple.

Discussion section

The discussion section must not repeat the results. If you repeat the results, then you have consumed your word count unnecessarily and bored your readers. The discussion is the opportunity to address your objective. The discussion should take in account your data, as well as data from supporting studies. It must elevate the work so it can be applied by other researchers. A discussion should include the most relevant limitations of your work and provide an intelligent conclusion.

Materials and methods section

The methods section must include the sufficient detail for someone experienced in your area to replicate your study. It must be concise and should reference previous work, so you don’t have to repeat details. The steps for performing a routine experiment don’t need to repeated, it is adequate to say what was done in a general way with any unusual details expressed explicitly.

Choose your journal and manuscript type carefully

An author must know the audience. In the case of writing a research paper, you must know where the article will be submitted before you start writing. It is imperative that you go to the website of your selected journal and read the instructions to authors. Ideally, templates will be provided so your document will be correctly formatted. Be sure to correctly select the type of manuscript you are intending to write (e.g., original research, review, etc) and verify the word count. These two factors will have a tremendous impact on your manuscript and need to be carefully considered. You may want to switch journals at this point, if it isn’t what you were expecting. I have returned manuscripts to authors without review, because the author failed to submit the article in the correct format or has exceeded the word count. If an article does proceed in the wrong format or with an elevated word count, then it may fail at a later stage simply because the senior editors and reviewers are distracted by the flaws in the manuscript preparation. If you didn’t care to format it properly, then the reviewers are wondering what else is missing.

A practical strategy

With the correct journal, article type, and word count in mind, you should start by writing the results section. Considering the study objective, prepare tables or figures and/or write the results in a concise manner to support the objective, and in parallel, write the methods. Only include the necessary experiments and details. This preparation will logically lead you to write a discussion of the results (not a repeat of the results), limitations, and enlightening conclusion. After reviewing what you have written (results, methods, and discussion), you will see that there are a few sentences required to orient the reader (i.e., someone with expertise in your area) in the introduction. Write the introduction, which will end with your objective statement(s).

Edit for grammar and style

Now that you have prepared first research paper, have it properly edited for grammar and style. Send the instructions to authors with your manuscript when having it edited. When a paper is written poorly, the editors and reviewers are distracted from the content. A good research paper can be rejected, because its message is lost in cumbersome language.