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7 Children’s Books that Could Hit the Big Screen

Who Said Children’s Books Can’t Make Great Movies?

Bloggers love to talk about the books they have read that would make great movies, but then how many of us are truly unhappy with Hollywood’s version of our favorite reads? I compiled a list of great movie adaptations of books that you won’t see anywhere else … but already added the Hollywood twist that will leave a different taste in your mouth than the author intended. And did I mention these are all classic children’s books? Dream with me a little about the adaptations of these books into movies.

Goodnight Moon
Goodnight Moon – If you have kids, you have read them this book. It is so popular, some hospitals send new parents home from the maternity ward with this book. And the crazy thing is, this book works! Who knew that saying good night to everything in your room – from the clocks to the pets – can actually have a drowsy effect? But think of the money Hollywood will make on this movie. People would pay for it and fall asleep before the end. They are too embarrassed to admit it so pay again to see the end of the movie! Just wait until it hits Redbox — those extra night fees will kill you.

Chicka Chicka Boom Boom

Chick Chicka Boom Boom – This book invites you to start tapping a beat and put the words to rhythm. No matter who makes the movie, I am thinking the movie soundtrack will be out of this world. It will lead to a new genre of music: the hip hop-kids-stadium anthem genre. Time outs at major sporting events will never be the same, culminating in the Super Bowl halftime show featuring Kanye West rapping through the Schoolhouse Rock collection. Can’t wait!

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The Monster at the End of This Book – The first Hollywood movie to save the big scare all the way to the end of the movie. Unfortunately, the suspense and scare are too much for little kids and less adventuresome adults. But it leads to a resurgence of The Muppets and a remake of Where the Wild Things Are.

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The Very Hungry Caterpillar – Very close to the previous horror movie entry is this disaster movie. That hungry caterpillar eats Tokyo and is moving toward the rest of the world. How can it be stopped? Only director Tim Burton could make this special movie in a way that is both scary and humorous at the same time. Plus, Hollywood loves the sequel. Stay tuned for Hungry Caterpillar 2: the Even Hungrier Butterfly.

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Frog and Toad – Moviegoers are drawn to this musical adaptation of the Frog and Toad series, plus film critics everywhere praise the film for its ingenious portrayal of the characters in a way that brilliantly addresses socio-cultural issues in today’s ethnically diverse melting pot milieu. In an unprecedented move, Frog and Toad end up sharing the Best Actor Oscar.

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The Wide-Mouthed Frog (in 3-D) – Who knew that this beloved pop-up book would shine so prominently on the big screen in 3-D? Audiences are shocked to learn that the wide-mouthed frog was genetically altered through the introduction of alien DNA in a secret government location inside of Area 51. WMF himself uncovers the conspiracy as he seeks to discover his own hidden identity. Matt Damon co-stars as Jason Bourne, faithful sidekick to the wide-mouthed frog.

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The Five Chinese Brothers – Let me begin by saying that I loved this book as a child. The movie could avoid any claims of stereotypes and focus on the cool superhuman things, such as swallowing huge amounts of water. Crazy! Who doesn’t want to swallow the ocean? This was a superhero book before there were cool superheroes. If this hits as big as it could, there will not only be Happy Meal toys, but bottled water moguls begging for the rights to include their faces on every bottle of water available. Talk about reaching new markets from superhero movies. They actually may make that Aquaman movie after all.

Top 9 Books Aspiring Writers Should Read

As I look back over the list I compiled, I can’t help but think, this is an odd list! But these writers inspired me through their books in many different ways to bring me along as a writer.

1. Dune by Frank Herbert

I learned a few lessons about the type of writer I did not want to be by reading Dune. It was much too complicated and verbose for me at that stage of life.

Dune

2. The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner

Some readers equally find Faulkner’s Fury complicated in another way: the stream of consciousness of the “idiot” family member. But I found it fascinating, more like a puzzle needing to be solved. Faulkner had me reeled in to figure this out.

The Sound and the Fury

3. A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor

This is the only book on this list that I have read several times for the pure joy of it. O’Connor had my emotions at her disposal. I laughed, ridiculed, laughed some more, and then was shocked. In the end I identify too much with the words of the Misfit, “She would have been a good woman had someone been there to shoot her every day of her life.” I too lament those moments of clarity that only occur when bad things happen. Oh for those moments of clarity all the time!

a-good-man-is-hard-to-find1

4. All the Kings Men by Robert Penn Warren

Never have I been so drawn in by introspection over identity, but I read Warren’s words as I searched for my own identity and realized how fractured I really am. I especially identified with Jack’s musings about the picnic where he invites all the different versions of himself together at the same time. Would my different identities even recognize each other? he muses. That quote hangs with me to this day.

all-the-kings-men1

5. The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien

My 12th grade English teacher pulled me aside and told me, “I want you to read these books.” And they consumed me. I could not put them down. I lived and breathed them and wondered how I could have lived 17 years on planet Earth without reading them. They were adventure to me as I lived through Frodo and Bilbo.

The Lord of the Rings

6. The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis

If The Hobbit was an inspiration of adventure, Narnia’s tales were pure magic. I used to dream of being taken away to Narnia. I used to remember stepping between floor-to-ceiling supports in our basement and imagined them as a gateway to Narnia. No, imagined is not strong enough. I longed to go to Narnia like Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy.

chronicles-of-narnia-boxed-set

7. Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein

Heinlein was not just adventure; it was danger. I had a fascination with science fiction and the young hero in Heinlein’s story.

Starship Troopers

8. The Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling

Never have I read so much with such anticipation and still wanted to read more when all seven volumes were complete. I longed to write my own imaginative story that created a world not too distant from our own.

jk rowling harry potter

9. The Firm by John Grisham

Never have I read a book so quickly. I still think of it as the page turner that I truly picked up and didn’t put down until I was finished.

john grisham the firm

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Edit911 is the world’s finest online proofreading and editing service. Our PhD editors are experts in book editing, dissertation editing, and other document, copy and text editing. Click here to get an instant quote for our editing services, or visit the contact page to discuss your project with us!

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Increasing Your Attention Span

By Dr. Kevin

Attention spans are shrinking in today’s information rich technology of sensory overload. In response, the market has introduced pills, drinks, and powders that claim to increase your powers of concentration. But there are also lifestyle and work habit changes you can make to increase your attention span naturally. 

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Actor Robert Redford once said of a colleague, “He has the attention span of a lightning bolt.” I winced at that observation, thinking he could have easily been describing me. I’m lucky if I can write a single sentence before fighting the urge to starting another game of solitaire.

Behavioural scientists have known for decades that the upper range of the average adult attention span is 20 minutes when listening to a speaker. But, in recent years we have been conditioned to have an even shorter focus. Television programming works with eight-minute spans. Multi-media options and lightening fast access to information on the computer force internet searches to narrow their window of opportunity to about 30 seconds. How can we condition our minds to follow through on a train of thought to reach its conclusion?

Some people turn to stimulants or dietary supplements to boost the power of concentration. But there are simple changes in lifestyle and work habits we can make that can increase our attention span naturally. In addition to sleeping well, eating healthy, and getting enough exercise, here are some specific strategies for improving attention span.

Feed Your Focus

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can occur when otherwise healthy individuals neglect to eat, can slow the speed at which people process information and shorten their attention span. After the overnight fast and lack of glucose in the body, it is important to eat a breakfast rich in both carbohydrates and proteins. The sugars can quickly make your mind sharp, and the complex carbohydrates and proteins will sustain energy to think for extended periods.

The health effects of synthetic food additives on certain people were documented 30 years ago by the late Dr. Benjamin Feingold in his book Why Your Child is Hyperactive. Since then, researchers have consistently corroborated that food additives exacerbate the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Many with the disorder who switch to a diet free from artificial colorings, sweeteners, and preservatives can experience major improvements in attention.

In addition, ensure that your diet includes enough vitamins and minerals. Deficiency of magnesium, for example, can lead to fidgeting, anxious restlessness, and learning difficulties. As well, the B-complex vitamins (including folic acid and choline), omega 3 fatty acids, and zinc are all linked to the maintenance of a healthy attention span.

 

Practice Meditation

Studies have shown that meditation is even more effective than sleep in improving attention span. For example, in a 2005 study, Bruce O’Hara, associate professor of biology at the University of Kentucky had college students either meditate, sleep or watch TV. The form of meditation was deceptively simple: it involved focusing on an image or sound or on one’s breathing.

O’Hara then tested all the students for what psychologists call psychomotor vigilance, asking them to hit a button when a light flashed on a screen. Those who had been taught to meditate performed 10% better—”a huge jump, statistically speaking,” says O’Hara. Those who snoozed did significantly worse. “What it means,” O’Hara theorizes, “is that meditation may restore synapses, much like sleep but without the initial grogginess.”

 

Control Your TV Watching

Between the constant commercial interruptions and the ever-present remote control that allows constant channel surfing, television breeds an appetite for distraction. When you want to watch, consider pre-recording episodes or renting movies so that you can enjoy the program without breaks.

 

Read Books

Reading definitely increases your attention span. Have you ever noticed that if you find an interesting novel to read, you may turn the pages for five or six hours regardless of the activity around you? These marathon reading sessions increase the stamina of your attention span for other tasks that require extended focus.

 

Exercise Your Observation Skills

Exercising your memory and your observation skills is a great way to build your attention span. Try this “picture game”- study a picture for about a minute. Then, look away and recall as much of the picture as you can. Try to visualize and place objects in the image of your mind. As you practice this regularly, your attention span and power of recall in daily events will grow.

 

Limit Internet Use

You may have heard the quip, “The attention span of a computer is as long as its electrical cord.” Actually, you don’t have to unplug the machine to break a train of thought. All it takes is an impulsive click of the mouse. This is not good news for those of us who go on-line to inform and shape our thinking.

To avoid having the attention span of a computer, consider saving articles of significance and logging off the Internet to read them. You may even find it helpful to print important documents and leave your workstation to digest their content. This reduces the temptation to jump between websites competing for your interest.

These lifestyle and work habits can all help increase attention span. Of course, your powers of concentration will have ebbs and flows at the best of times. When this happens, don’t be afraid to take a complete break. It will refresh your mind in a way that simply switching to another task cannot.

Peer-reviewed research article vs. dissertation

Peer-reviewed research article vs. dissertation: How to write a great paper for publication

You’re writing your dissertation and want to publish your first research article. What is the difference between your dissertation and a publishable article? Working at a peer-reviewed journal, I have seen manuscripts of all types including those that look like they were copied and pasted from a dissertation. Research articles are concise summaries of your work directed at readers who are experienced in your area of research. Dissertations serve as a platform for an evaluation of your expertise and work. If you keep this in mind, then you will have a much better chance of having your work published.

How to write a great paper for publication

First, let’s review four sections of any research paper: introduction, results, discussion, and methods. I have not included the abstract, as this requires an entire blog on its own. Second, I will give you a strategy to develop your paper that will put you on a path for success.

Introductory section

Roles of a dissertation include demonstrating an in-depth knowledge of your field, assessing your ability to define a problem, creating a hypothesis, and designing an appropriate tool to test it. When you are writing a paper for publication, all of these are already assumed. The readers are experts and not on your committee. Your introduction should include a few points to orient the reader as to what is known, what you are aiming to determine, and how. The last sentence of your introduction should state that the objective of this research is to determine whatever you are interested in by using your selected tool.

Results section

The results that are discussed in your research paper need to be restricted to those that are relevant to answering your objective. No matter how interesting a particular experiment may have been, if it isn’t directly related to your research question/objective, it will detract and ultimately sabotage your efforts to have your work published. It will prompt reviewers to question the structure of the research plan and lose focus on the objective. They may even envisage a different paper centered on a new objective. Keep it simple.

Discussion section

The discussion section must not repeat the results. If you repeat the results, then you have consumed your word count unnecessarily and bored your readers. The discussion is the opportunity to address your objective. The discussion should take in account your data, as well as data from supporting studies. It must elevate the work so it can be applied by other researchers. A discussion should include the most relevant limitations of your work and provide an intelligent conclusion.

Materials and methods section

The methods section must include the sufficient detail for someone experienced in your area to replicate your study. It must be concise and should reference previous work, so you don’t have to repeat details. The steps for performing a routine experiment don’t need to repeated, it is adequate to say what was done in a general way with any unusual details expressed explicitly.

Choose your journal and manuscript type carefully

An author must know the audience. In the case of writing a research paper, you must know where the article will be submitted before you start writing. It is imperative that you go to the website of your selected journal and read the instructions to authors. Ideally, templates will be provided so your document will be correctly formatted. Be sure to correctly select the type of manuscript you are intending to write (e.g., original research, review, etc) and verify the word count. These two factors will have a tremendous impact on your manuscript and need to be carefully considered. You may want to switch journals at this point, if it isn’t what you were expecting. I have returned manuscripts to authors without review, because the author failed to submit the article in the correct format or has exceeded the word count. If an article does proceed in the wrong format or with an elevated word count, then it may fail at a later stage simply because the senior editors and reviewers are distracted by the flaws in the manuscript preparation. If you didn’t care to format it properly, then the reviewers are wondering what else is missing.

A practical strategy

With the correct journal, article type, and word count in mind, you should start by writing the results section. Considering the study objective, prepare tables or figures and/or write the results in a concise manner to support the objective, and in parallel, write the methods. Only include the necessary experiments and details. This preparation will logically lead you to write a discussion of the results (not a repeat of the results), limitations, and enlightening conclusion. After reviewing what you have written (results, methods, and discussion), you will see that there are a few sentences required to orient the reader (i.e., someone with expertise in your area) in the introduction. Write the introduction, which will end with your objective statement(s).

Edit for grammar and style

Now that you have prepared first research paper, have it properly edited for grammar and style. Send the instructions to authors with your manuscript when having it edited. When a paper is written poorly, the editors and reviewers are distracted from the content. A good research paper can be rejected, because its message is lost in cumbersome language.

Featured Clients: John Clarence & Thomas Whittle

Featured Clients: John Clarence & Thomas Whittle, authors of The Gold House trilogy

The Gold House Triolgy

Prepare to be astounded, shocked, and thoroughly engrossed by this incredible true story that John Clarence & Thomas Whittle have meticulously, rigorously, and brilliantly researched and written. Edit911 could not be more proud of having been chosen to edit this blockbuster trilogy.

The product of 8 years of research and writing, The Gold House trilogy has been read and reviewed by prominent authors and scholars who support the charges leveled by the authors against the government and numerous individuals.  The books are packed with photos, endnotes, and an index and they are available on Nook, Kobo, Amazon-Kindle, iBookstore, and in a limited hardback first edition, which are available at www.victoriopeak.com.

Working with John was a great experience for me [Marc D. Baldwin, PhD, Owner of Edit911, Inc.].  Because of the magnitude and importance of his huge project, we talked many times on the phone and exchanged dozens of emails to be sure my editors and I fully understood his editing objectives. The end result is a trilogy beyond the reader’s wildest imagination —they blow the lid off a conspiracy of silence in this extraordinary story of government corruption that rivals Watergate.

Needless to say, John and his co-author Tom are extremely pleased with Edit911’s work on their project.

In John’s own words: “The first thing that must be resolved when you begin writing is to determine whether you are writing for yourself, or if you wish to have your ideas and thoughts shared with others…and eventually criticized. If you are merely writing for yourself you really don’t need an editor. But if you want your book to reach the widest possible audience, you need an editor.”

jack portrait

John Clarence

“One reason that I decided to contact Marc Baldwin at Edit 911 was that I came to realize that I was deeper in the woods when I finish writing the books than I was when I started. The Gold House trilogy is a set of complex stories that had to be meticulously researched, but because of the subject matter it was important to stay with it: do the research, compile it, look for corroboration, and then begin writing. I finally found my way out of the woods after turning the final draft over to Edit911. It was the smartest thing I did, aside from writing the books. Shortly afterward Marc returned the manuscripts and it was then that I realized that writing a book is only the first step, and the other steps begin and end with your editor and later a good proofreader.”

“Here is what I learned when I surrendered my manuscripts to Edit911: never write yourself into the story unless absolutely necessary; use simple words to get your point across; never say in ten words what can be said in five; avoid repetitiveness; be honest with your writing; present your work for editing when you have exhausted on resource material that adds substance to the story you are telling; and at all times be honest with yourself when you write about others. These are the lessons I learned from Marc Baldwin at Edit911. His work is extraordinary and has made my work that much better.”

I thank John for his kind words and I also predict that The Gold House will be a major motion picture and result in a Congressional investigation. That’s how big and important this true story is.

Check out The Gold House trilogy in more detail: http://www.victoriopeak.com

And on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Gold-House-book-Trilogy/234711566648998

And YouTube – http://www.youtube.com/user/victoriopeak

You can also email John directly at: Johnclarence@johnclarence.com

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Edit911 is the world’s finest online proofreading and editing service. Our PhD editors are experts in book editing, dissertation editing, and other document, copy and text editing. Click here to get an instant quote for our editing services, or visit the contact page to discuss your project with us!

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Writing & Editing Humor

Thanks to sites like Pinterest, Tumblr and Facebook, we’ve come across some fantastic writing and editing related memes being circulated. We share them whenever we find them on our Facebook & Pinterest, so join us there if you love writing humor as much as we do! Some of our favorite sites to visit for more are The Oatmeal and Writer’s Write.

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Edit911 is the world’s finest online proofreading and editing service. Our PhD editors are experts in book editing, dissertation editing, and other document, copy and text editing. Click here to get an instant quote for our editing services, or visit the contact page to discuss your project with us!

Join us on Facebook and Twitter for daily writing and editing related advice, humor and news!


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Why Grammar Matters on Personal Blogs

Personal blogs — why grammar matters!

For those of us who have a personal blog, we know there is a much satisfaction in sharing our ideas. We spend time planning and writing our blog and we look forward to receiving likes and comments. Some of our blogs may be focused on a “cause” while others may just be a means of sharing life events with many people.

How much time do you spend editing your blog for proper grammar? Does it matter if you write things like “well” when you actually mean “good?” Will it impact your blog or readership if you interchange the words “there,” “they’re,” or “their?” It might surprise you how these grammatical errors might just impact your life.

Here are three ways that poor grammar might be impacting your world.

  1. Many jobseekers and career climbers are unaware that poor grammar is holding back their careers. Numerous online resources are reminding people that companies may not hire people who use poor grammar. Employers will take the time to look beyond your resume and cover letter. They now look at your online history and if your blog presents poor grammar or spelling issues this might be a deciding factor as to why you do not get the job. An employer might call into question your perfectly crafted resume and cover letter if they find other written documents with poor grammar – they will wonder which person they might hire. (Impact of poor grammar – Not Hired)
  2. Likewise, if you are competing for a promotion, your personal blog might be reviewed and quietly used as a reason to not promote you. Promotions often come with a need for increased verbal and written communication and these are skills that most employers do not have time to teach. If you present poor grammar outside of work, employers may worry that you will slip into bad habits while at work. (Impact of poor grammar – Not Promoted)
  3. Documents and blogs that you write in defense of a cause need to be properly edited and formatted. Poorly edited or formatted letters sent in support of your cause will receive less attention. Those who read these documents do not want to decipher what you are trying to say. (Impact of poor grammar – Your impassioned plea for your “Cause” is ignored)

So take a few minutes on that personal blog to make sure the grammar is correct. In the business world, it is very important to have a strong command of English grammar rules and be able to express your thoughts and ideas clearly using the written word. Maybe have one of your blog posts edited by someone who knows the difference between the proper use of “your” and “you’re.”

Grammar does matter, and people do notice.

Do you need a sabbatical?

By Dr. Kevin

Are you feeling burnt out? Do your day-to-day responsibilities at work stand in the way of a goal you have for your life? Perhaps a sabbatical is just the ticket for you. Once the privilege of tenured professors, the sabbatical is now spreading into the corporate world as a means of keeping employees happy, healthy, and productive.

Computer giant Cisco Systems in San Jose, California, experienced a surprising response when it created a pilot sabbatical program six years ago. Employees who accepted a two-thirds pay cut were offered a chance to volunteer for a year in the non-profit sector. Cisco expected 20 or 25 employees to sign up, but 300 made application. In its first year, 80 people were granted the sabbatical and Cisco has now added this program permanently to its benefits package. They are not alone. In 2006, nearly half of Fortune magazine’s “100 Best Companies to Work for in America” offered paid sabbatical programs.

The concept of a sabbatical originated more than two thousand years ago as evidenced in the Bible. The Old Testament directs the Hebrew people to let their fields lie fallow every seventh (sabbatical) year in order to give the land and its people rest and maintain maximum productivity (Exodus 23:10-11 and Leviticus 25:3-4). Similarly, Deuteronomy 15:12-14 stipulates that Hebrew slaves were to be freed from service after six years. What is more, their owners were to send them on their way with a generous share of provisions to live on.

The modern practice of granting sabbaticals can be traced back to the 19th century. According to Kenneth Zahorski, in his book The Sabbatical Mentor, in 1888 Harvard University recruited noted philologist Charles Lanman from Johns Hopkins University by offering him every seventh year off with pay. The practice spread quickly in academia and the church. The purpose for the sabbatical was to afford professors and clergy the opportunity to travel, pursue research, reassess direction, renew one’s spirit, and accomplish goals that were not possible within the bounds of normal career routines.

Of course, the benefits of a sabbatical can apply to any vocation and the option has spread, particularly among companies that rely on their employees to generate ideas or expend emotional energy. In general,  publishing, high technology, advertising, consulting, social service and counselling agencies are more sabbatical-friendly than natural resource, manufacturing or finance firms.

Professional “sabbatical coach” Clive Prout describes four main reasons why people take sabbaticals (www.thesabbaticalcoach.com):

Exploring Self and Purpose  – Perhaps the most fundamental motivation for a sabbatical, time free from work allows deep contemplation to answer the question “What gives meaning and purpose to my life?”

Changing Track – Some people sense that their current career path has run its course and in order to avoid stagnation and death of the soul, they can use a sabbatical to redirect their vocation.

Rejuvenation – Other people know that they are on the right track in their life. However, because they are highly motivated, they are prone to overwork and burn out. For this group the sabbatical is an opportunity for renewal. They can return to their life’s work reenergized and ready for more.

Escape – Feeling frustrated and overwhelmed, many people seize the opportunity for a sabbatical simply to relieve stress. They have no plan to sustain themselves when they return to the grind that has worn them down, nor do they follow any strategy to make lasting changes in their professional or personal lives.

Besides the personal benefits, the sabbatical also benefits the company and the colleagues of the individual taking the time away. Having a sabbatical policy aids the employer in both recruitment and retention of qualified employees who are seeking more than simply a high salary. Upon return from a sabbatical, the employee often brings new direction, greater creativity, fresh energy and increased loyalty. While veterans of many years are away on sabbatical, junior colleagues who fill in get the chance to expand their skills, demonstrate their talents and earn greater confidence from others. In this sense, the sabbatical becomes a developmental opportunity for all.

Even if your employer does not have a sabbatical policy in place, it may be possible for you to arrange paid leave if you plan ahead. Some businesses and education boards offer self-funded sabbaticals. In these situations, employees have a portion of their income withheld over several years. They are then able to use these savings to fund extended time off. The employer continues to provide health, insurance and pension benefits during the sabbatical.

So, write that book. Sail around the world. Volunteer on a short-term mission. Learn a new language. Explore a different culture. Nurture your soul. Refresh your spirit. Regain your health.

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Edit911 is the world’s finest online proofreading and editing service. Our PhD editors are experts in book editing, dissertation editing, and other document, copy and text editing. Click here to get an instant quote for our editing services, or visit the contact page to discuss your project with us!

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A Basic Taxonomy of Documentation Styles That Editing Services Should Know

In their freshman English courses, many college students must use Modern Language Association (MLA) style.  Some even learn MLA well enough to apply it in later undergrad papers.  However, when they take classes outside of the English department, they often find they must learn other documentation styles. The more common among these additional styles are the American Psychological Association (APA) style and Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS or CMS; often referred to as Chicago style).

For graduate students and professionals engaged in scholarly writing, the documentation styles tend to be more varied, with many disciplines and professional groups having their own specific styles, including the Council of Science Editors (CSE), the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Political Science Association (APSA), the American Sociological Association (ASA), the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, pronounced “I triple-E”).  In addition, many other professional organizations have their specific styles, many journals have their own in-house styles, and some publishers have their own styles that apply to all of their journals or to those focused on certain fields.

The various styles can be very confusing.  Besides the more salient differences (whether notes or parenthetical citations are used and whether dates follow authors’ names in parenthetical citations), the styles are often differentiated in the bibliographic entries by the use of parentheses and punctuation or the placement of the date.

To identify styles by the in-text citations, I generally apply the following system.

Numbers used to represent citations

  1. Are the numbers superscript (1) or regular font (in-line) in brackets (2)?
    1. Superscript numbers are used for different purposes in different systems.

a. In some documentation styles, superscript numbers indicate footnotes or endnotes that provide authorial comments only (used in MLA or APSA, for example).  These notes are not used primarily to indicate references unless, as specified by MLA, a parenthetical citation would contain enough references so that its length interferes with reading the text.

b. In other styles, the footnotes or endnotes indicate the sources for information used in the text and may contain authorial comments (alone or with reference information).  Such notes are used in the CMOS/Turabian notes-bibliography style.  Notes corresponding to superscript numbers appear at the bottom of the page on which the numbers appear (footnotes), at the end of a chapter (chapter endnotes), or after the last chapter (endnotes).  The information in these notes is repeated in a bibliography that often follows the final endnotes.  The bibliography is in alphabetical order.  This notes-bibliography style allows the use of shortened citations or Ibid. after the initial note giving the full publication information.  However, many students complain about having to duplicate the information from a bib entry for a source in the first note referring to that source.  Simply copying the information will not work because the punctuation in the notes is different from that in the bib entries.

c.         Finally, superscript numbers can indicate entries in the final references list (often labeled References or References Cited).  The entries in the final list are organized in the order in which they appear in the text and are numbered.  Subsequent references to a source will be indicated by the earlier superscript number assigned to that source.  Styles using this citation/sequence style include AMA and one of the CSE styles.  AMA indicates page numbers in superscript parentheses immediately following the number: 5(p377).

  1. Non-superscript (in-line) numbers in brackets usually indicate a citation/sequence style (with entries in the references list organized in the order of their citation in the text).  IEEE is an example of this style.  However, ACM has an alternative name/sequence style in which sources in the references list are organized alphabetically by authors’ last names and numbered consecutively.  In the text, a number in brackets (following punctuation marks if any are present) indicates the source being cited.

 

Parenthetical in-text citations

  1. Do parenthetical citations include the publication date?
    1. If parenthetical citations do not include a date, the documentation style is very likely MLA.
    2. Styles that include the date in parenthetical citations are often used in the social sciences and in some humanities.  They include CMOS/Turabian author-date style, APA, ASA, APSA, ACM, and CSE name/year style.  These styles can be further differentiated by the formatting of the citations.

a.         If an ampersand (&) is used to join multiple authors’ names instead of the word and, the style is very likely APA or Harvard style.  APA is further identified by a comma following the author’s name before the date and preceding the ampersand (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2010) while Harvard style does not have either of these commas (Smith, Jones & Brown 2010).  Both Harvard style and APA have the page number preceded by a p and a period: (2010, p. 5).

b.         Styles that do not place a comma after the author’s name can often be differentiated by the way the date and page number are treated. APSA and CMOS/Turabian author-date styles separate the date from a page number with a comma (Name 2010, 23).  CSE name/year style also separates the date from a page number with a comma and indicates the page number with a p with no punctuation following it: (Name 2010, p 23).

c.         ASA separates the date from the page number with a colon: (Name 2010:23).

d.         Some styles do not use parentheses for the in-text citations.  Specifically, ACM uses brackets: [Name 2010].

 

Thus, the taxonomy for the documentation styles is as follows:

Numbers or Information in parentheses

If numbers, are they superscript or regular font?

If superscript, do the numbers indicate notes?

If so, do the notes contain source information?

If not, the style is probably MLA or APSA. (Skip to “parentheses” questions below.)

If so, the style is probably CMOS/Turabian.

If the numbers do not indicate notes, check the references list for numbered entries. The style is probably AMA or CSE.

If the numbers are not superscript, they are probably in brackets.

If the numbers are consecutive early on in the paper, the style is probably a citation/sequence style, such as IEEE, and the entries in the references list are not in alphabetical order.

If the numbers appear to be random, the style is probably a name/sequence style, such as ACM, and the entries in the references list are in alphabetical order.

If parentheses are used, do the in-text citations include dates?

If not, the style is probably MLA.

If so, is an ampersand used to connect authors’ names?

If so, does a comma appear before the date?

If so, the style is probably APA (which has a p and a period before the page number).

If not, the style is probably Harvard (which also uses a p. before the page number).

If an ampersand is not used to connect authors’ names, is the date separated from the page number with a comma?

If so, does a p without punctuation appear before the page number?

If so, the style is probably CSE name/year style.

If not, the style is probably APSA or CMOS/Turabian author-date style.

If the date is separated from the page number with a colon, the style is probably ASA.

 

Finally, if the author-and-date citation appears in brackets instead of parentheses, the style is probably ACM.

 

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