Students occasionally have difficulty adjusting to online formats, especially if they are accustomed to being in a classroom with ‘real’ people and a ‘real’ instructor. When instructors design online classes, we work under mandates to align them as closely as possible to their on-ground counterparts as far as material covered. Although this is true, the dissonance arises because students may feel alone, hanging on the periphery of the educational arena, attached only by a rectangular screen.
It doesn’t have to be that way, however. Online is not an abyss; it is merely a new way of communicating. The majority of online courses provides a venue for discussion and encourages interaction with your instructor and your classmates, ‘bonding’ if you will. In the best online classes, students ‘get it’ and sustain productive dialogue. Thus, the primary difference between online and on-ground courses lies with you and has to do with self-motivation, self-discipline, time management, and sticktuitiveness, all qualities that will put you ahead, not only in academia but also in the world of work.
Whether you are a first timer or a seasoned pro in the virtual world, there follows a list of suggestions that can aid your online success.
- Download and read the syllabus. Be aware of when modules or discussion boards will change or close.
- Transfer all due dates to a planner or calendar. Monthly ones work best because they allow you to see ‘what’s ahead.’
- Avoid procrastination! Just because there are ending due dates does not mean you should put off the assignment. In an on ground class, there are constant reminders; in an online class, these may not be as evident.
- Check email at least daily. Most online instructors use this form of communication and many will send periodic reminders of due dates along with other information. [Email will go to your university address].
- Frequently, check the course home page for announcements.
- Check the To Do or Assignment List in each module. They will clearly spell out the expectations for the week or partial week of the course.
- Do NOT be afraid to contact your instructor. If you have a question, chances are good others do as well.
- Note the instructor’s posted response time on the syllabus. If you do not receive an answer within that specified period, send another email. Technology is miraculous but, occasionally, things do fall into a virtual black hole.
- On the point above … your classmates may be clever and bright and terribly together but asking them questions about assignments is often less informative than asking the instructor.
- A little known fact … your instructor can monitor your time on the computer. If an accrediting board or board of regents mandates x number of contact hours per course [in Tennessee, it is 45 for a three hour credit class] and your report shows that you have been online for four hours, your grade may reflect that deficit even if you have submitted all the academic work. Even downloading or printing the modules takes a certain amount of time, which will show in your report.
- Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that you enrolled in the class. That may sound odd but it happens … if you have been absent in an on-ground class, your instructor may say ‘welcome back’ or ask where you’ve been or remind you that attendance is important. In an online class, the instructor may send an inquiry by email but, without a response, we may assume you have dropped or are merely disinterested.
- Please adhere to correct formatting on your papers … instructors appreciate a readable 12-pt font and double spacing. Put your name on everything and use it in your document tags [e.g., Save As … Paper 2 Your Name]
- Please adhere to the rules of grammar and spelling [even in your discussion board postings and responses].
- Learn and use APA documentation … if you have doubts, purchase the book, access http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/, or ask your instructor. [Important: If you cannot write a paragraph explaining the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing, please contact your instructor before submitting work].
- Save your documents in an accessible format, preferably .doc or .docx … do not submit papers marked “Read Only,” which prohibits corrections.
- To review: show up, communicate, discuss, dissect, and analyze. Don’t procrastinate.
All of Edit911’s dissertation editors and book editors use an MS Word function called “Track Changes” to edit the documents our clients submit. In case you’re not familiar with the program, you can find it on your toolbar under “Review.” Simply click on it to turn it on. The Track Changes program allows the copyeditor to do two things to your manuscript: to make changes in the text itself (indicated by a color other than black, so that they can be found easily) and to add comments in the right-hand margin of your manuscript.
Dealing with Changes in Your Edited Text
There are two ways to deal with the changes in the text itself. If you agree with the copyeditor’s changes in the text, you can either highlight each suggested change individually and then go “Accept” on the Review toolbar, or if you are satisfied with all the changes your copyeditor has made in the text, you can click on “Accept All Changes in Document” on the Review toolbar, but you don’t have to highlight anything for those changes to occur.
Value-added Editing with Comment Balloons
In the right-hand margin, your copyeditor will chat with you about issues arising within the manuscript. It is important to pay attention to these comment balloons because in general they are an attempt to talk with you about issues greater than the spelling of a word or the correct punctuation of a sentence.
Here are some balloon comments I made on a recent document that I edited:
“I don’t understand what this word means in this context. Can you choose a different word that will be clearer for your reader?”
“In the previous paragraph, you referred to this character as a male (he), but in this paragraph, you referred to the same character as female (she). Was this just an error?”
“This statement is a direct quote from a published article, and so you need to give the appropriate bibliographic reference in parenthesis.”
“This paragraph would be better to sum up your argument, rather than to introduce your argument.”
“I think scenario would be a better word choice here than script.”
“In your bibliography, you have spelled this author’s name as Smith, but here you have spelled it as Smyth. Please locate the correct spelling and then change accordingly.”
“This would be a good place to cite a reference from Foucault to support your argument.”
Using the Comment Balloons to Maximum Effect
Occasionally these comments opened up some back-and-forth discussion with the author, though most were straightforward in pointing out a need for change that the author could take care of herself.
If your document will go back and forth to the copyeditor, you can type inside the balloons yourself, though you might want to write in all capital letters to distinguish your comments from the copyeditor’s.
To get rid of the Comment Balloons once you have attended to each, you must click on them individually. The advantage of this is that you can once again review the dialogue with the copyeditor before making it disappear.
Track Changes is quite easy once you get the hang of it. When you do, you’ll wonder how we ever did without it!
If you’ve never used an editing service before, you may not know what to expect or how to get the best results from the service that Edit 911 provides. All the editors at Edit 911 are highly skilled professionals who have earned PhD degrees and have years of experience helping clients improve their writing to yield the best possible outcome. Many of us are currently writers ourselves, with an active publication schedule, so we are quite familiar with the production of quality documents, including the importance of attention to detail. We know what we’re doing, and we want to help you produce a final product that proves that you too know what you are doing!
When you make a submission to Edit 911, you will be assigned a specific editor. For the relationship between an author and an editor to be truly productive, a great deal more information is needed. The list below details the information needed in order to make your working relationship with your editor much more successful.
1. Who or what is this document for? A school assignment? Completion of a degree (if so, what degree and what university)? For publication in a journal? For publication by a commercial publisher? For self-publication? For a professional newsletter? In any of those cases, please describe your readership in some detail, so that your editor can judge how well the text and the expected readership “match.”
2. If your document is for publication, where do you plan to publish it so that we can try to locate the publisher’s or journal’s style guide? Have you been assigned to use a specific style guide? If so, please provide the name of the guide and the edition—for example, APA 11th edition, or Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.
3. Do you prefer American spelling and punctuation or British/Australian/New Zealand/Canadian spelling and punctuation?
4. What is the earliest reasonable deadline by which you need your work to be edited and returned to you? If there are significant problems with your manuscript, are you willing to submit it for a second round of editing after you have made all indicated corrections?
5. Are you using an electronic data base for your academic references? If so, please provide the name of the data base and the edition—for example, EndNote 5.
6. Does your manuscript need a formal Table of Contents? If so, please provide the name of the software or word processing program that was used to create your document. Give as much detail as possible.
7. Does your document contain pictures, diagrams, tables, charts, or graphs? If so, what program were they created in? Do those need to be edited? Did you check these pictures, diagrams, tables, charts, or graphs against any required style guide?
8. Are foreign words used regularly in your document? If so, please provide the name of the language/s used, and if possible, provide a link to an on-line dictionary of that language so that we can check your spelling and usage.
9. Are technical or unusual words used in your document? If possible, provide a link to an on-line dictionary for those words so that we can check your spelling and usage.
10. Is there anything else you would like to say to your editor in order to insure that you get the best possible service from him or her?
When you begin to write, whether a dissertation or a novel, you must fight the urge to edit your work too soon. Your first responsibility must be to get your ideas down on paper or in a computer file. Only then should you make a concerted effort to edit your work.
Ideas generally do not flow smoothly or sequentially. They often come in spurts that allow you to write several paragraphs to several pages without stopping to think about what should come next. One idea may also trigger related ideas, like shoots on a tree limb that will either grow into separate branches or be pruned to keep the tree shaped and healthy.
Don’t stop the creative process. When you stop the flow of ideas prematurely to wordsmith a sentence, second guess the name of a character, or determine the appropriateness of the content you are writing, you may be terminating your creative thinking process prematurely. You can become so fixated on ensuring you have the perfect word or the most appropriate name that the plot line of your novel or the next connecting idea in your chapter is removed from your short-term memory bank, possibly never to resurface (at least in that particular form). What is left is a well-crafted sentence that goes nowhere, often accompanied by deep frustration at again not knowing how to continue because you have also lost your momentum.
Instead, keep writing. Don’t worry if you are suddenly developing a different but related idea. Don’t worry about word choice. If another word pops in mind as you are writing, note it in the margin (if you are a pen-and-paper writer) or in parentheses at the end of the sentence or in a comment using the track changes feature of your word processing program.
Reread & Evaluate. When you have completed your writing for the day or whatever time period you have set aside for writing, reread your material. As you reread, begin identifying what works and what doesn’t. Substitute the words, names, or other things you noted to see what works best. Note anything else you need to think about more before changing or developing more fully. Work on those areas later.
If you have changed subjects and begun developing a different idea, move that material to a later point in your writing. Either physically cut and paste it into the appropriate section or, if you haven’t begun to section yet, move it to the end of your writing to be used later (or not).
Resist the urge to edit intensely until you have your first draft complete. This draft may be the entire chapter of a dissertation or thesis, one section of a paper, a chapter in a book, or an entire article or essay.
Then do a preliminary edit. This edit is strictly for content and organization. A well punctuated sentence with appropriate word choice that does not contribute to the main idea of your paragraph is still a poor sentence, so concentrate on content. Look at the flow of ideas. Look at the relationships between ideas. Identify what has to be developed more fully. Identify anything that is off topic. Look at word choice and clarity of meaning. Based on what you find, return to research and writing mode to fill in missing information to ensure the content moves smoothly from one idea to the next.
Note: This is still not the time to work intensely on nitty-gritty details such as punctuation and capitalization. Correct or change items that you see immediately as you read, but do not get bogged down in the details. Once you have your content under control, then you can begin editing in earnest.
Editing Dissertations, Theses, and Works of Nonfiction
In your second edit, look primarily for clarity and tone. Do your sentences make sense? Have you used the most appropriate word choice? Have you used appropriate transitions to get from one idea to the next? Are your sentences so long that they become difficult to follow? Have you used the correct verb tense? Have you used active voice? Have you eliminated all contractions? Have you used abbreviations and acronyms appropriately? If you are writing a dissertation, be sure you have organized each chapter according to university requirements. Be sure each section contains the required information.
Also check to see you have eliminated possible plagiarism. Make sure all quotations are clearly punctuated (often people forget to put the ending quotation marks in) and that the citation for each quotation includes not only the author and publication date but also the page number on which the quotation appears. Make sure any ideas that are not completely your own (e.g., conclusions based on your findings or personal interpretations) are credited appropriately. Better to cite something than to overlook citing something! Then be sure you have all the sources you cite listed in your reference list or bibliography.
What’s next? After this second edit, you may be ready for the final edit or you may need to return to research/writing mode. Your decision depends on whether you have areas that still need to be finessed in terms of style, beefed up in terms of specific content, or moved or removed because the material does not work in its current location.
The 3rd Edit—That’s right, 3rd. Once you are sure your content is as near perfect as you can get it, you are ready for the third edit. This edit should focus on nitty-gritty details. You may consider this proofreading; and, if you have been successful in your previous edits, this may be the case. However, if you had to redo content, you may be combining proofreading with the areas outlined in the second edit. In this third edit, focus on grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, usage, sentence structure, and any of the stylistic requirements your publisher (or university) expects.
Finally, ensure that your reference list and your citations match. Generally, any work cited must be placed in your reference list and any source given in the reference list must be cited within the main text at least once. Bibliographies may include works not cited; however, check your university dissertation formatting and style guide to be sure this is allowed.
Works of Fiction
Writing fiction is a bit different from nonfiction, but the basic premises are similar. You should have some kind of plot outline to guide your story development just as doctoral candidates have the specific chapter outlines to ensure all the content in included in the final paper. However, you have more freedom to play with your material and let your story spin itself than writers of nonfiction.
Write first; edit later. Just as with nonfiction, you want to get your ideas down before wordsmithing and reorganizing your material. Unlike nonfiction, you have a myriad of details that you must keep straight as you move through your storyline, from the color of the hero’s eyes to the car used in the bank heist get away.
However, your first priority should be in getting the story roughed out in as much precision as possible. If you get to the end of a scene and aren’t sure where to go from there but know that later a particular event must occur, jump to that portion of the book and develop it. If you want to frame your story using a flashback technique but have difficulty creating the transition, consider writing the whole story in chronological order first and then playing with framing to create the tension and tone you desire to keep your reader reading.
Let your characters write their story. You often hear published authors talk about their characters taking on lives of their own. Even though these authors begin with plot outlines, their characters dictate the action, often changing the original storyline completely. So think like your characters when you get to a point where your story is not moving forward. What would John do here? How would Mary react? What would happen if Tim and Stephanie divorced? Moved to another city? Adopted a child? Were involved in an accident?
Reread & Evaluate. After you have completed your story, begin rereading to see how the story flows. Identify what needs to be developed and what needs to be removed. Examine not only the progression of your story but also the consistency of content and characterization details.
Profile your characters. In terms of characterization, keep a file for each character as you write. Note the person’s physical and personality characteristics and background information. If you change someone’s characterization as the story develops, be sure there is a reason for the change (e.g., the outgoing little boy becomes withdrawn because of his father’s disappearance, a divorced woman lies about her age and former experience because she is desperate for a job; the accountant changes his physical appearance to escape the mob). Otherwise, rewrite to eliminate the inconsistencies.
You will need to keep locations and timelines consistent. For example, the physical layout of the main character’s apartment must remain the same throughout a story unless part of the storyline is changing its arrangement. Note in your file, even if you never mention it in the actual story, its complete layout. Draw it, including doors and windows, furniture placement, colors and décor, east-west orientation. Then, if you have to have a character exit the apartment because of a fire, you aren’t having him crawl out on to a balcony that did not exist earlier in the book. Similarly, you won’t have a character seeing the sun rising over the skyline from his bedroom at the beginning of the chapter and then seeing the sun setting in the horizon from the same bedroom later in the book.
Timelines must be realistic. Draw one for your story, and possibly for each main character, to make sure their comings and goings are doable. It’s hard for someone to live fulltime in New York in 1963 and fulltime in Florida in 1965 when the character moved to New York in 1963 and lived there for five years. Either the dates have to change or you have to create a scenario in which this is possible. Even in the genres of science fiction and fantasy, consistency is important to create and maintain the suspension of belief necessary for readers to stay engaged in these storylines.
Now edit and proofread. Once you complete your story, including elimination of any inconsistencies, you are ready to proofread and edit your work for the technical aspects of writing. Even during this time, you should be attuned to the flow of the story, especially dialogue. You should also look carefully at the way you have divided the story into parts, sections, or chapters. These should reflect not only the appropriate structure for your story (location, time, character) but also the creation of anticipation for the next page in the story: Do you maintain the momentum of the story? Does the chapter end with a mini cliff hanger so that the reader wants to know what happens next? Is the character sufficiently charismatic that the reader will keep reading to see what he or she will do next? Is the situation plausible enough that the reader will want to continue reading the story? Does the story flow, especially if you use flashbacks or other time devices that disrupt the chronological order of the events in the plot?
If need be, employ an editing service. It’s no secret we often can’t see our own writing’s flaws. Most of the world’s best writers have an editor. At Edit911, our dissertation editing service and book editing service has helped over 23,000 people improve and maximize their writing.
Writing is a process, one that is slightly different for every person. However, editing your writing too soon may result in abandoning your story or dissertation out of a sense of frustration rather than in completing the finely crafted work you want to create. Concentrate first on the creative part of the writing process. Get your ideas down. Then work on flow, framing, and organization. Look at the nitty-gritty details of the conventions of writing last. Doing so will help you fulfill your writing goals.
Nothing is a bigger enemy of good writing than fuzzy thinking. Nothing can quite replace putting appropriate time and thought into your writing to make your points and word choice clear and concise! Take the following steps.
Picture your audience. Name a member of your audience. Give him an age, name, and face if necessary. Think of him as you write. Think about how your writing will interest him and help him achieve what you want him to accomplish after reading your work.
Review your assignment. If you see your audience and know what you want the end consumer to get out of it, then the next step is to examine the requirements to get across your message. Have all requirements squared away from the beginning: word count, purpose, goal, technique, etc. Leave nothing to chance.
Set up your document. Create your word processing file. Set up your document preferences: proper margins, font, font size, tabs, and other settings so that you don’t have to go back and redo anything.
Write a thesis statement or hypothesis. Keep that statement in focus for your entire research. If a statement does not help you get across your thesis, or help evaluate your hypothesis, then delete it.
Outline your argument and the steps you will take. Have a plan for your writing and provide this sketch before you fill in the details. This will help you, especially if you are a writer who typically starts writing first and shaping later.
Ask at least 3 people to read your writing. The more eyes you have on your writing, the more problems you are likely to catch on the front end. Be willing to take the critique of others. Allow people to correct everything from the details (like grammar and punctuation) to the big picture ideas and assumptions you make (to keep from incorrect assumptions and faulty logic).
Write your first draft. Write it freely. You can self-edit as you go if you wish. Sometimes it’s great just to get the ideas out. After you have your first draft, let it sit for at least a day. Leaving this time after your first draft will help you gain some perspective and help your read it fresh.
Read it again. Look at it from a big picture point of view, seeing if it makes sense or if anything needs more attention.
Do a final edit. Read it, editing all the details. Trim to the word count and cut out unnecessary words and phrases.
Run spell and grammar check. This can help your writing more than you know. Spell check finds those nasty misspelled words. Grammar check can find any pesky subject-verb agreement issues or help you find that easy-to-miss passive voice that may sound correct to your ear.
Ask one other person you trust to read it again. You can never get too much feedback. Sometimes your professor will offer to do this for you if you can finish your writing early.
Turn it in and reward yourself!