In their freshman English courses, many college students must use Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Some even learn MLA well enough to apply it in later undergrad papers. However, when they take classes outside of the English department, they often find they must learn other documentation styles. The more common among these additional styles are the American Psychological Association (APA) style and Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS or CMS; often referred to as Chicago style).
For graduate students and professionals engaged in scholarly writing, the documentation styles tend to be more varied, with many disciplines and professional groups having their own specific styles, including the Council of Science Editors (CSE), the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Political Science Association (APSA), the American Sociological Association (ASA), the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, pronounced “I triple-E”). In addition, many other professional organizations have their specific styles, many journals have their own in-house styles, and some publishers have their own styles that apply to all of their journals or to those focused on certain fields.
The various styles can be very confusing. Besides the more salient differences (whether notes or parenthetical citations are used and whether dates follow authors’ names in parenthetical citations), the styles are often differentiated in the bibliographic entries by the use of parentheses and punctuation or the placement of the date.
To identify styles by the in-text citations, I generally apply the following system.
Numbers used to represent citations
- Are the numbers superscript (1) or regular font (in-line) in brackets (2)?
- Superscript numbers are used for different purposes in different systems.
a. In some documentation styles, superscript numbers indicate footnotes or endnotes that provide authorial comments only (used in MLA or APSA, for example). These notes are not used primarily to indicate references unless, as specified by MLA, a parenthetical citation would contain enough references so that its length interferes with reading the text.
b. In other styles, the footnotes or endnotes indicate the sources for information used in the text and may contain authorial comments (alone or with reference information). Such notes are used in the CMOS/Turabian notes-bibliography style. Notes corresponding to superscript numbers appear at the bottom of the page on which the numbers appear (footnotes), at the end of a chapter (chapter endnotes), or after the last chapter (endnotes). The information in these notes is repeated in a bibliography that often follows the final endnotes. The bibliography is in alphabetical order. This notes-bibliography style allows the use of shortened citations or Ibid. after the initial note giving the full publication information. However, many students complain about having to duplicate the information from a bib entry for a source in the first note referring to that source. Simply copying the information will not work because the punctuation in the notes is different from that in the bib entries.
c. Finally, superscript numbers can indicate entries in the final references list (often labeled References or References Cited). The entries in the final list are organized in the order in which they appear in the text and are numbered. Subsequent references to a source will be indicated by the earlier superscript number assigned to that source. Styles using this citation/sequence style include AMA and one of the CSE styles. AMA indicates page numbers in superscript parentheses immediately following the number: 5(p377).
- Non-superscript (in-line) numbers in brackets usually indicate a citation/sequence style (with entries in the references list organized in the order of their citation in the text). IEEE is an example of this style. However, ACM has an alternative name/sequence style in which sources in the references list are organized alphabetically by authors’ last names and numbered consecutively. In the text, a number in brackets (following punctuation marks if any are present) indicates the source being cited.
Parenthetical in-text citations
- Do parenthetical citations include the publication date?
- If parenthetical citations do not include a date, the documentation style is very likely MLA.
- Styles that include the date in parenthetical citations are often used in the social sciences and in some humanities. They include CMOS/Turabian author-date style, APA, ASA, APSA, ACM, and CSE name/year style. These styles can be further differentiated by the formatting of the citations.
a. If an ampersand (&) is used to join multiple authors’ names instead of the word and, the style is very likely APA or Harvard style. APA is further identified by a comma following the author’s name before the date and preceding the ampersand (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2010) while Harvard style does not have either of these commas (Smith, Jones & Brown 2010). Both Harvard style and APA have the page number preceded by a p and a period: (2010, p. 5).
b. Styles that do not place a comma after the author’s name can often be differentiated by the way the date and page number are treated. APSA and CMOS/Turabian author-date styles separate the date from a page number with a comma (Name 2010, 23). CSE name/year style also separates the date from a page number with a comma and indicates the page number with a p with no punctuation following it: (Name 2010, p 23).
c. ASA separates the date from the page number with a colon: (Name 2010:23).
d. Some styles do not use parentheses for the in-text citations. Specifically, ACM uses brackets: [Name 2010].
Thus, the taxonomy for the documentation styles is as follows:
Numbers or Information in parentheses
If numbers, are they superscript or regular font?
If superscript, do the numbers indicate notes?
If so, do the notes contain source information?
If not, the style is probably MLA or APSA. (Skip to “parentheses” questions below.)
If so, the style is probably CMOS/Turabian.
If the numbers do not indicate notes, check the references list for numbered entries. The style is probably AMA or CSE.
If the numbers are not superscript, they are probably in brackets.
If the numbers are consecutive early on in the paper, the style is probably a citation/sequence style, such as IEEE, and the entries in the references list are not in alphabetical order.
If the numbers appear to be random, the style is probably a name/sequence style, such as ACM, and the entries in the references list are in alphabetical order.
If parentheses are used, do the in-text citations include dates?
If not, the style is probably MLA.
If so, is an ampersand used to connect authors’ names?
If so, does a comma appear before the date?
If so, the style is probably APA (which has a p and a period before the page number).
If not, the style is probably Harvard (which also uses a p. before the page number).
If an ampersand is not used to connect authors’ names, is the date separated from the page number with a comma?
If so, does a p without punctuation appear before the page number?
If so, the style is probably CSE name/year style.
If not, the style is probably APSA or CMOS/Turabian author-date style.
If the date is separated from the page number with a colon, the style is probably ASA.
Finally, if the author-and-date citation appears in brackets instead of parentheses, the style is probably ACM.
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In performing any academic editing, such as dissertation editing or thesis editing, you will usually need to use two style guides. The first is provided by your university and may or may not be combined with the policies and procedures for dissertations and degree conferral. The second is a professional style manual.
One Style Does Not Fit All
Some schools use one professional style manual for all departments; others allow each department to choose its own manual. The most common of these are the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), and the MLA Handbook (MLA). Some departments use A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian). Other manuals are used less commonly in the writing of dissertations and theses.
Go Right to the Source and Ask the Horse
You can determine which style manual you are required to use by checking the university style and formatting guide or asking your advisor. Ideally, the professors for your courses leading up to the dissertation process will expect you to use the required professional manual for their assignments. In that way, you will begin to build the skills needed in the dissertation or thesis process.
Learn & Apply Its Rules
Professional style manuals include information related to the technical aspects of writing your dissertation, including the requirements of formal language, and to the publication of articles and books. Some manuals are narrow in focus; others try to anticipate as many situations as possible that writers may confront. Most typically include information related to the following:
- Punctuation (including use of italics)
- Preferred spelling (including hyphenation)
- Use of numbers
- Use of abbreviations
- Use of scientific terminology
- Formats for tables, charts, and other graphics
- Reference list or bibliography entry requirements by type of source
- Internal citation formats
- Footnote and end note formats
- Levels and formats for headings and subheadings
- Elimination of bias in writing (including gender bias and preferred terminology for racial and ethnic groups)
Pay Attention to the Edition
When you locate the specific professional style manual for your department, be sure to note which edition the university requires. These manuals undergo continual revision, with new editions being published as often as every three years. Typically, universities will update their requirements to include the most recent manual editions. However, students who begin the dissertation process under one manual edition are not usually required to change as long as they complete their dissertations in a timely manner.
Be Wary of the Guides’ Limitations and Contradictions!
You should also be aware of the limitations of these professional guides. For example, APA and MLA are geared specifically to the sciences and language and literature, respectively. CMS is much broader in scope and is generally used in the social sciences. When APA and MLA do not contain specific information, editors often rely on CMS to determine correct form and required information. They then adjust the formatting to meet APA or MLA requirements.
You may also find that information in the professional guides contradicts information in your university dissertation style and format guide. Remember, the university guide always trumps the professional guide.
Consider Using an Editing Service
If you’re stumped or just want to be sure, you may want to hire an editing service to check everything for you. Be sure to tell your academic editor not only the specific style manual required but also the specific edition. Editors often have multiple editions of these manuals to use as resources. Knowing which one you must follow is imperative to ensuring an accurate edit of your paper.
All of Edit911’s dissertation editors and book editors use an MS Word function called “Track Changes” to edit the documents our clients submit. In case you’re not familiar with the program, you can find it on your toolbar under “Review.” Simply click on it to turn it on. The Track Changes program allows the copyeditor to do two things to your manuscript: to make changes in the text itself (indicated by a color other than black, so that they can be found easily) and to add comments in the right-hand margin of your manuscript.
Dealing with Changes in Your Edited Text
There are two ways to deal with the changes in the text itself. If you agree with the copyeditor’s changes in the text, you can either highlight each suggested change individually and then go “Accept” on the Review toolbar, or if you are satisfied with all the changes your copyeditor has made in the text, you can click on “Accept All Changes in Document” on the Review toolbar, but you don’t have to highlight anything for those changes to occur.
Value-added Editing with Comment Balloons
In the right-hand margin, your copyeditor will chat with you about issues arising within the manuscript. It is important to pay attention to these comment balloons because in general they are an attempt to talk with you about issues greater than the spelling of a word or the correct punctuation of a sentence.
Here are some balloon comments I made on a recent document that I edited:
“I don’t understand what this word means in this context. Can you choose a different word that will be clearer for your reader?”
“In the previous paragraph, you referred to this character as a male (he), but in this paragraph, you referred to the same character as female (she). Was this just an error?”
“This statement is a direct quote from a published article, and so you need to give the appropriate bibliographic reference in parenthesis.”
“This paragraph would be better to sum up your argument, rather than to introduce your argument.”
“I think scenario would be a better word choice here than script.”
“In your bibliography, you have spelled this author’s name as Smith, but here you have spelled it as Smyth. Please locate the correct spelling and then change accordingly.”
“This would be a good place to cite a reference from Foucault to support your argument.”
Using the Comment Balloons to Maximum Effect
Occasionally these comments opened up some back-and-forth discussion with the author, though most were straightforward in pointing out a need for change that the author could take care of herself.
If your document will go back and forth to the copyeditor, you can type inside the balloons yourself, though you might want to write in all capital letters to distinguish your comments from the copyeditor’s.
To get rid of the Comment Balloons once you have attended to each, you must click on them individually. The advantage of this is that you can once again review the dialogue with the copyeditor before making it disappear.
Track Changes is quite easy once you get the hang of it. When you do, you’ll wonder how we ever did without it!
When you begin to write, whether a dissertation or a novel, you must fight the urge to edit your work too soon. Your first responsibility must be to get your ideas down on paper or in a computer file. Only then should you make a concerted effort to edit your work.
Ideas generally do not flow smoothly or sequentially. They often come in spurts that allow you to write several paragraphs to several pages without stopping to think about what should come next. One idea may also trigger related ideas, like shoots on a tree limb that will either grow into separate branches or be pruned to keep the tree shaped and healthy.
Don’t stop the creative process. When you stop the flow of ideas prematurely to wordsmith a sentence, second guess the name of a character, or determine the appropriateness of the content you are writing, you may be terminating your creative thinking process prematurely. You can become so fixated on ensuring you have the perfect word or the most appropriate name that the plot line of your novel or the next connecting idea in your chapter is removed from your short-term memory bank, possibly never to resurface (at least in that particular form). What is left is a well-crafted sentence that goes nowhere, often accompanied by deep frustration at again not knowing how to continue because you have also lost your momentum.
Instead, keep writing. Don’t worry if you are suddenly developing a different but related idea. Don’t worry about word choice. If another word pops in mind as you are writing, note it in the margin (if you are a pen-and-paper writer) or in parentheses at the end of the sentence or in a comment using the track changes feature of your word processing program.
Reread & Evaluate. When you have completed your writing for the day or whatever time period you have set aside for writing, reread your material. As you reread, begin identifying what works and what doesn’t. Substitute the words, names, or other things you noted to see what works best. Note anything else you need to think about more before changing or developing more fully. Work on those areas later.
If you have changed subjects and begun developing a different idea, move that material to a later point in your writing. Either physically cut and paste it into the appropriate section or, if you haven’t begun to section yet, move it to the end of your writing to be used later (or not).
Resist the urge to edit intensely until you have your first draft complete. This draft may be the entire chapter of a dissertation or thesis, one section of a paper, a chapter in a book, or an entire article or essay.
Then do a preliminary edit. This edit is strictly for content and organization. A well punctuated sentence with appropriate word choice that does not contribute to the main idea of your paragraph is still a poor sentence, so concentrate on content. Look at the flow of ideas. Look at the relationships between ideas. Identify what has to be developed more fully. Identify anything that is off topic. Look at word choice and clarity of meaning. Based on what you find, return to research and writing mode to fill in missing information to ensure the content moves smoothly from one idea to the next.
Note: This is still not the time to work intensely on nitty-gritty details such as punctuation and capitalization. Correct or change items that you see immediately as you read, but do not get bogged down in the details. Once you have your content under control, then you can begin editing in earnest.
Editing Dissertations, Theses, and Works of Nonfiction
In your second edit, look primarily for clarity and tone. Do your sentences make sense? Have you used the most appropriate word choice? Have you used appropriate transitions to get from one idea to the next? Are your sentences so long that they become difficult to follow? Have you used the correct verb tense? Have you used active voice? Have you eliminated all contractions? Have you used abbreviations and acronyms appropriately? If you are writing a dissertation, be sure you have organized each chapter according to university requirements. Be sure each section contains the required information.
Also check to see you have eliminated possible plagiarism. Make sure all quotations are clearly punctuated (often people forget to put the ending quotation marks in) and that the citation for each quotation includes not only the author and publication date but also the page number on which the quotation appears. Make sure any ideas that are not completely your own (e.g., conclusions based on your findings or personal interpretations) are credited appropriately. Better to cite something than to overlook citing something! Then be sure you have all the sources you cite listed in your reference list or bibliography.
What’s next? After this second edit, you may be ready for the final edit or you may need to return to research/writing mode. Your decision depends on whether you have areas that still need to be finessed in terms of style, beefed up in terms of specific content, or moved or removed because the material does not work in its current location.
The 3rd Edit—That’s right, 3rd. Once you are sure your content is as near perfect as you can get it, you are ready for the third edit. This edit should focus on nitty-gritty details. You may consider this proofreading; and, if you have been successful in your previous edits, this may be the case. However, if you had to redo content, you may be combining proofreading with the areas outlined in the second edit. In this third edit, focus on grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, usage, sentence structure, and any of the stylistic requirements your publisher (or university) expects.
Finally, ensure that your reference list and your citations match. Generally, any work cited must be placed in your reference list and any source given in the reference list must be cited within the main text at least once. Bibliographies may include works not cited; however, check your university dissertation formatting and style guide to be sure this is allowed.
Works of Fiction
Writing fiction is a bit different from nonfiction, but the basic premises are similar. You should have some kind of plot outline to guide your story development just as doctoral candidates have the specific chapter outlines to ensure all the content in included in the final paper. However, you have more freedom to play with your material and let your story spin itself than writers of nonfiction.
Write first; edit later. Just as with nonfiction, you want to get your ideas down before wordsmithing and reorganizing your material. Unlike nonfiction, you have a myriad of details that you must keep straight as you move through your storyline, from the color of the hero’s eyes to the car used in the bank heist get away.
However, your first priority should be in getting the story roughed out in as much precision as possible. If you get to the end of a scene and aren’t sure where to go from there but know that later a particular event must occur, jump to that portion of the book and develop it. If you want to frame your story using a flashback technique but have difficulty creating the transition, consider writing the whole story in chronological order first and then playing with framing to create the tension and tone you desire to keep your reader reading.
Let your characters write their story. You often hear published authors talk about their characters taking on lives of their own. Even though these authors begin with plot outlines, their characters dictate the action, often changing the original storyline completely. So think like your characters when you get to a point where your story is not moving forward. What would John do here? How would Mary react? What would happen if Tim and Stephanie divorced? Moved to another city? Adopted a child? Were involved in an accident?
Reread & Evaluate. After you have completed your story, begin rereading to see how the story flows. Identify what needs to be developed and what needs to be removed. Examine not only the progression of your story but also the consistency of content and characterization details.
Profile your characters. In terms of characterization, keep a file for each character as you write. Note the person’s physical and personality characteristics and background information. If you change someone’s characterization as the story develops, be sure there is a reason for the change (e.g., the outgoing little boy becomes withdrawn because of his father’s disappearance, a divorced woman lies about her age and former experience because she is desperate for a job; the accountant changes his physical appearance to escape the mob). Otherwise, rewrite to eliminate the inconsistencies.
You will need to keep locations and timelines consistent. For example, the physical layout of the main character’s apartment must remain the same throughout a story unless part of the storyline is changing its arrangement. Note in your file, even if you never mention it in the actual story, its complete layout. Draw it, including doors and windows, furniture placement, colors and décor, east-west orientation. Then, if you have to have a character exit the apartment because of a fire, you aren’t having him crawl out on to a balcony that did not exist earlier in the book. Similarly, you won’t have a character seeing the sun rising over the skyline from his bedroom at the beginning of the chapter and then seeing the sun setting in the horizon from the same bedroom later in the book.
Timelines must be realistic. Draw one for your story, and possibly for each main character, to make sure their comings and goings are doable. It’s hard for someone to live fulltime in New York in 1963 and fulltime in Florida in 1965 when the character moved to New York in 1963 and lived there for five years. Either the dates have to change or you have to create a scenario in which this is possible. Even in the genres of science fiction and fantasy, consistency is important to create and maintain the suspension of belief necessary for readers to stay engaged in these storylines.
Now edit and proofread. Once you complete your story, including elimination of any inconsistencies, you are ready to proofread and edit your work for the technical aspects of writing. Even during this time, you should be attuned to the flow of the story, especially dialogue. You should also look carefully at the way you have divided the story into parts, sections, or chapters. These should reflect not only the appropriate structure for your story (location, time, character) but also the creation of anticipation for the next page in the story: Do you maintain the momentum of the story? Does the chapter end with a mini cliff hanger so that the reader wants to know what happens next? Is the character sufficiently charismatic that the reader will keep reading to see what he or she will do next? Is the situation plausible enough that the reader will want to continue reading the story? Does the story flow, especially if you use flashbacks or other time devices that disrupt the chronological order of the events in the plot?
If need be, employ an editing service. It’s no secret we often can’t see our own writing’s flaws. Most of the world’s best writers have an editor. At Edit911, our dissertation editing service and book editing service has helped over 23,000 people improve and maximize their writing.
Writing is a process, one that is slightly different for every person. However, editing your writing too soon may result in abandoning your story or dissertation out of a sense of frustration rather than in completing the finely crafted work you want to create. Concentrate first on the creative part of the writing process. Get your ideas down. Then work on flow, framing, and organization. Look at the nitty-gritty details of the conventions of writing last. Doing so will help you fulfill your writing goals.